## types of oxidation reaction pdf

Cr2O72– (aq) + 14H+ (aq) + 6e– → 2Cr3+(aq) +7H2O (l) Redox reactions, as they are called, are the energy‐producing reactions in industry as well as in the body. elements of group two (2nd) is two. ... there are three main types of oxidation: (i) loss of electr ons. Some important types of redox reactions are being described as follows: 1. trailer In the first step, acid-catalyzed reaction between heteropolyanion, water and methacrolein takes place to form an acetal- or hemiacetal-type intermediate. Were going to focus on just a few. (Chain initiation) k 1 =70M-1s-1 [14] -----(1) The generation of the radicals involves a complex reaction By classifying chemical reactions, it is possible to predict products, based on generalised chemical equations. Addition Reactions Substitution Reactions Elimination Reactions Oxidation Reduction Reaction. 6. 0000001799 00000 n You can test your readiness to proceed by … Electrochemical reactions are great examples of oxidation reactions. The oxidation processes utilizing activation of H2O2 by iron salts are referred to as Fenton’s reagent. Oxidation Mechanisms of Fats and Oils Different chemical mechanisms are responsible for the oxi-dation of fats and oils during processing, storage, and cooking. Common O. S. of elements of group one (1st) is one. The potential associated with eachelectrode is known as electrode potential. balance the equation showing the oxidation of Fe2.+ ions to Feb3+ ions by dichromate ions (Cr2O72– in acidic medium,wherein, Cr2 This is a oxidation/reduction half-reaction. In compounds, oxygen has an oxidation number of - 2, except in peroxides, where it is -1 Oxygen = -2 4. �f4J3 iu�R!à�mWan��TћoK�4j,ZMBK4�k���+=*��Xh&���N,��ыi��o&���\�C���+���z�DLA�z�4��8�a��D��"�� o����f�C��&0Aa�&�۪��db���h�Y28��8|*ЇzF�8q�ק0��@���qmZv�P�ij��D������&J��HDt��iby��$��� These are reactions in which two species (atoms or molecule) combine to form a single species. Fe2+ (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + e– O72– ions are reduced to Cr3+ ions. This half-reaction is producing/consuming electrons. Addition of an electropositive element. Electrochemical cells are the devices which are used to get electric current by using chemical reaction. This reaction allows the generation of hydroxyl radicals as shown in reaction (1) [11-13]: Fe2++H 2 O→Fe3++OH-+OH. The half equations are Types of Organic Reactions AGUNG RAHMADANI DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY UNIVERSITY OF MULAWARMAN SAMARINDA 2014. categories of organic reactions There are so many types of organic reactions. The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 but in metal hydride its oxidation no. Peroxides are intermediates in the auto-oxidation reaction. CBSE Syllabus Class 12 Maths Physics Chemistry ... CBSE Syllabus Class 11 Mathematics biology chemistry ... CBSE Syllabus Class 10 Maths Science Hindi English ... CBSE Syllabus Class 9 Mathematics Science English Hindi ... Revised Syllabus for Class 12 Mathematics, 3. 59 0 obj <>stream a. ethanol and an oxidizing agent producing acetic acid b. benzene and chlorine gas producing 5,6-dichloro-1,3-cyclohexadiene c. C(CH3)2OHCH2CH3 reacting to completion with an oxidizing agent Reaction B and C are impossible. 8. �f~�➦N,>��02 �~]���R�!ͻgU*��SM���d�^��d�?��� First , the oxidation reaction: H2 2H+ + 2e- And the reduction reaction F 2 + 2e- 2F- If you're asked the five main types of reactions, it is these four and then either acid-base or redox (depending who you ask). 0000001047 00000 n Write balanced equations for single replacement, double replacement, and combustion reactions. 0000004893 00000 n 0 ... oxidation reaction actually conforms to all three of the IUPAC. Combination reactions “combine” elements to form a chemical compound. 0000001310 00000 n As usual, oxidation and reduction occur together. The iron metal is oxidized to form the iron oxide known as rust. Cr2O72– (aq) → Cr3+(aq), Step 4: For reactions occurring in acidicmedium, add H2O to balance O atoms and H+to balance H atoms.Cr2O72– Oxidation number denotes theoxidation state of an element in a compound ascertained according to a setof rules formulated on the basis thatelectron in a covalent bond belongsentirely to more electronegative element. One may simply balance the half reaction equations by adding the appropriate number of electrons. 211!! These numbers are the charges of the individual elements that make up an ion or 0000002901 00000 n h��Yێ�6}�W�QnW\�N��M�۠5��C�����z�@�v�?��퐺����&y)ĆL g�9�^�����z��jv�ZQD���P��?� � �h�9Z��t;�q�$��3�BZ=̢�e�O���B�$F�ϻMvؕ���|s�6�������+{��eWx�JLR�,�ve�{�*�ǈ1d]��Z� *��n� The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, π-bonds, and rings. 4. Free-energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction when the reaction is catalyzed (lower curve) and uncatalyzed (upper curve) are illustrated in Fig. individually. Learners identify combination, decomposition, displacement, and combustion types … Reaction Oxidation • High-Pressure Oxidation . 1. the oxidation number of the atom of a free element is zero Element = 0 2. the oxidation number of a monatomic ion equals its charge 3. When a copper wire is placed into a solution that contains silver ions, electrons are transferred from the copper metal to the silver ions. Removal of an electropositive element, 4. For neutral molecules, the sum of the oxidations states of all atoms is zero. 0000000016 00000 n Non fermentative bacteria are routinely tested for their ability to produce acid from six carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, mannitol, lactose, sucrose, and maltose). Reduction: A decrease in the oxidationnumber. • SHE is used to measure electrode potential and its standard electrode potential is taken as 0.00 V. Please send your queries to ncerthelp@gmail.com you can aslo visit our facebook page to get quick help. xref %PDF-1.4 %���� Oxidation: An increase in the oxidationnumber Metals react with oxygen in the air to produce metal oxides. I- Addition Reactions In alkenes and alkynes In … Metals. 3. Two types of oxygen, atmospheric triplet oxygen and singlet oxy-gen, can react with fats and oils. It is not necessary to determine the oxidation numbers prior to figuring out the number of electrons involved in a half-reaction. Download full-text PDF. 8. For ions composed of only one atom, theoxidation number is equal to the chargeon the ion. In an oxidation reaction, a substance gains oxygen. Reduction half :Cr2O72–(aq) → Cr3+(aq), Step 3: Balance the atoms other than O andH in each half reaction 0000001177 00000 n Keep in mind, a specific chemical reaction may fall into more than one category. 43 17 <<49E2DCE38265AE47975CA8C9A5646046>]>> The reaction of methane with molecular oxygen is an oxidation-reduction reaction. Oxidation of methacrolein to methacrylic acid over heteropolyacids proceeds as follows [48]. The core of a redox reaction is the passing of one or more electrons from one species to another. The peroxide value of oil or fat is used as a measurement of the extent to which rancidity reactions have … Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts Of Chemistry, Chapter 3 Classification of Elements And Periodicity In Properties of Elements, Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure, Chapter 12 Organic chemistry : Some Basic Principles and Techniques, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Maths Hindi English Math, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Science English Hindi SST, Class 11 Maths Ncert Solutions Biology Chemistry English Physics, Class 12 Maths Ncert Solutions Chemistry Biology Physics pdf, Class 1 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 5 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 6 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 7 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 8 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 9 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 10 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 11 Model Test Papers Download in pdf, Class 12 Model Test Papers Download in pdf. Thus aurous chlorideand auric chloride are written as Au(I)Cl andAu(III)Cl3. The oxidation number of oxygen in most compounds is –2.While in peroxides (e.g., H2O2, Na2O2), eachoxygen atom is assigned an oxidationnumber of –1, in superoxides (e.g., KO,RbO2) each oxygen atom is assigned anoxidation number of –(½). This is why we call this a redox reaction. Redox reactions: Reactions which involvechange in oxidation number of the interactingspecies. Given a redox reaction equation, identify the element being oxidized, the one being reduced, and any spectator ions. Categorize reactions by type: synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion. H 2 + F 2 2HF This reaction can be written as two half reactions. 0000005295 00000 n Electrons that are lost by one atom must be gained by another. By a complex series of steps, H 2 O molecules are converted to O atoms and then to O 2 (g) molecules. In a reaction these two processes occur together so that one element or compound gains electrons while the other element or compound loses electrons. Step 1: Produce unbalanced equation for thereaction in ionic form: 2. In autocatalysis, the reaction is catalysed by one of its products. This gives the net ionicequation as : 6Fe2+(aq) + Cr2O72– (aq) + 14H+(aq) → 6 Fe3+(aq) +2Cr 3+(aq) + 7H2O(l). Oxidation half : Fe2+ (aq) → Fe3+(aq) The kinetic parameters change over reaction time; the order of reaction initially was between 1 and 2, but at longer reaction times the reaction becomes first order [829]. Removal of an electronegative element, 4. The best test for auto-oxidation (oxidative rancidity) is determination of the peroxide value. 0000000636 00000 n The oxidation of ethanedioic acid by manganate(VII) ions. 0000002824 00000 n The copper metal is oxidized. Stockotation:the oxidationnumber is expressed by putting a Romannumeral representing the oxidation numberin parenthesis after the symbol of the metal inthe molecular formula. �w1��Ė椪���?ÅA�'�S���n���~�2@2 *���)T8��Pjn}My4���p�@ŊS�V�NAFz��8#���]��(�Gs�d�T&'Ȩ&K%�M-�6�xG���Q���h�0�Ə�B�1װ��]ܓ�>��1 �� �D.�̈́.�����N'\v�+�s�����c�ջ� ��S�J�uX�̘�+��k�*fH�!�S x�bf:������� �� �@����Ł��\��D�u��9氪30D˼�r�*s���t� In compounds containing hydrogen, hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 Hydrogen = +1 5. General equation: $A + B \rightarrow AB$ Sample 1. equation: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O The sum of oxidation states in the reactants is equal to that in the products: 0 + 0 → (2)(+1) + (-2) In this equation, both H2 and O2 are the molecular forms of their respective elements and therefore their oxidation states are 0. 1.3 What do we call a device that makes use of an electrochemical reaction? 43 0 obj <> endobj endstream endobj 44 0 obj <> endobj 45 0 obj <> endobj 46 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 47 0 obj <> endobj 48 0 obj <> endobj 49 0 obj <> endobj 50 0 obj <> endobj 51 0 obj <> endobj 52 0 obj <>stream Metals and non-metals can take part in oxidation reactions. ThehalfJreaction!method!involves!balancing!the!oxidation!reaction!as!if!it! The algebraic sum of the oxidation numberof all the atoms in a compound must bezero. 0000000966 00000 n Step 1: The skeletal ionic equation is: Cr2O72–(aq) + SO32–(aq) → Cr3+(aq)+ SO42–(aq), Step 2: Assign oxidation numbers forCr andS+6 –2 +4 –2 +3 +6 –2 Cr2O72–(aq) + SO32–(aq) → Cr3+(aq)+ SO42–(aq), Step 3: Calculate the increase anddecrease of oxidation number, and make them equal:+6 –2 +4 –2 +3 +6 A redox couple is defined as havingtogether the oxidised and reduced forms of asubstance taking part in an oxidation orreduction half reaction. molecule (see Topic 6), undergo the oxidation reaction. 0000004858 00000 n 5. ��}�s8�yC�ǣ�Iw\k����m�)�ȹ�����X��4�V�d0��=�q�С6m. (aq) +14 H+→ Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O (l), Step 5: Add electrons to one side of the halfreaction to balance the charges. OrganicChemistry. +6 –2 +3 Energy of activation is required to sufficiently energize a substrate molecule to reach a transition state in which there is a high probability that a chemical bond will be made 0000007988 00000 n �.c;��tIWɕ-��{s�8�eݸ�g}�B���.ɜ����N(t�\���8�u�ⴎ�� �Q�D B(Ǝ�ƀ����S��4K�E���1v���V09 ������a��/�� ���MX\t�a08�����/j����b[ �b`�b3�� ��HP Redox Reaction Basic Formulas Free PDF Notes Download. The reaction of sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride,and the burning of coal (carbon) to give carbon dioxide,are examples of combination reactions.Depending on conditions or the relative amounts of the reactants, more than one product can be formed in a combination reaction. ?�A�0s��+�cie�fR$�k�E�l.�SL:�ؤ��� g�Ս����c���gM[b���w ݬ�p0��L�:�В����fv�c��UV��CӴ8��i��pm�PA:��8�s�Ϫ���=�����e3�y����oVE�0�V�c��\� ���A�a�������ܟ77�e0����mcq�m��9f���z��a�k/�X$_��|���8i�l#�F� ��1 �DK�P�фM���e�R:�(���C���1RGћ8����0� R��H0��;��ѣeܢ1�@�s�c Addition reactions are typically exothermic. Reducing agent: A reagent which lowers the oxidation number of an element in a givensubstance. Link of our facebook page is given in sidebar. reaction is balanced the sum of the ionic charges on the left side of the equal sign is equal to that on the right side. 7. Triplet oxygen, having a radical character, reacts with radicals and causes autoxidation. Common Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions By Debbie McClinton Dr. Miriam Douglass Dr. Martin McClinton. Notice that the sum of the oxidation states for any molecule or ion equals the charge on that molecule or ion. Decomposition Reactions 3. Ifthe concentration of each species taking partin the electrode reaction is unity (if any gasappears in the electrode reaction, it is confinedto 1 atmospheric pressure) and further thereaction is carried out at 298K, then thepotential of each electrode is said to be the Standard Electrode Potential. element, 3. Similarly, stannous chloride andstannic chloride are written as Sn(II)Cl2andSn(IV)Cl4. In polyatomic ion, the algebraic sumof all the oxidation numbers of atoms ofthe ion must equal the charge on the ion. In oxygendifluoride (OF2) and dioxygendifluoride (O2F2), the oxygen is assignedan oxidation number of +2 and +1,respectively. Oxidising agent: A reagent which canincrease the oxidation number of an elementin a given substance. 2.2 Reduction occurs at the (anode/cathode) 2.3 Oxidation (gain/loss) of electrons 2.4 Oxidation occurs at the (anode/cathode) The product is H2O: the oxidation state is -2 for oxygen and +1 for hydrogen. Circle the impossible reaction(s) and justify your choice. Common O. S. of reaction is assigned with an oxidation number that reflects its ability to acquire, donate, or share electrons. Then the intermediate is dehydrogenated and subsequently hydrolyzed to produce methacrylic acid. Now put the two half-reactions together. Represented as Zn2+/Zn and Cu2+/Cu. %%EOF These reagents are also called asreductants. The main four types of reactions are direct combination, analysis reaction, single displacement, and double displacement. wereanisolatedreaction.Thenthereductionhalf Jreaction!isbalancedasifit!were 2. 0000002578 00000 n (Other types of reaction have been substitution and elimination). 0000005052 00000 n MnO 4-= +7 Mn2+ = +2 +7 Æ +2 is a reduction Notice that the number of electrons equals the change in oxidation number. Oxidation- Reduction Reactions 6.2 Oxidation Numbers 6.3 Types of Chemical Reactions 6.4 Voltaic Cells Review Skills The presentation of information in this chapter assumes that you can already perform the tasks listed below. (closed circuit/electrochemical cell) Question 2 Choose the correct answer 2.1 Reduction is the (gain/loss) of electrons. zero O. S. of elements in Cl2, F2, O2, P4, O3, Fe(s), H2, N2, C(graphite) is zero. 1. Cr2O72–(aq) + 3SO32–(aq) → 2Cr3+(aq)+ 3SO42–(aq), Step 4: Balance the charge by adding H+as the reaction occurs in theacidic medium, Cr2O72–(aq) + 3SO32-(aq) 8H+ → 2Cr3+(aq)+ 3SO42–(aq), Step 5: Balance the oxygen atom by adding water molecule. Confirm this by assigning oxidation numbers to the manganese atoms. v Electrochemical cells are the devices which are used to get electric current by using chemical reaction. Addition of an electronegative 0000030504 00000 n ! 9. A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. In all its compounds, fluorine has anoxidation number of –1. Ch08 Reacns of Alkenes (landscape) Page 1 Reactions of Alkenes Since bonds are stronger than bonds, double bonds tend to react to convert the double bond into bonds This is an addition reaction. IH2655 SPRING 2012 Christoph Henkel / Mikael Östling KTH 17 Different types of furnace oxidation Here: Furnace oxidation using dry (O 2) or wet (H 2 O) ambient Typically 800- 1200 C at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) Chlorine may be added by HCl Oxidation‐reduction reactions are some of the most important chemical reactions. Redox reactions can be primarily classified into five different types: 1. startxref Combination Reactions 2. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. Experimental studies were conducted to examine the oxidation of carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug widely detected in surface waters and sewage treatment effluent, by potassium salts of permanganate (Mn(VII); KMnO4) and ferrate (Fe(VI); K2FeO4). A Ru ion-catalyzed oxidation reaction was the basis of the RICO method developed by Strausz for the structural characterization of asphaltenes. In the process, H+ ions are released and these exactly replace those lost at the negative electrode. Displacement Reactions 4. Oxidation fermentation test is used to determine whether an organism uses carbohydrate substrates to produce acid byproducts. Combination Reactions. Cr2O72–(aq) + 3SO32–(aq) 8H+→ 2Cr3+(aq)+ 3SO42–(aq)+ 4H2O(l). 0000002326 00000 n Disproportionate Reactions Let us go through each type of redox reaction one-by-one. If need be,make the number of electrons equal in the twohalf reactions by multiplying one or both halfreactions by appropriate coefficients. O. S. of all the elements in their elemental form (in standard state) is taken as is–1. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. The carbon atom of CH 4 is oxidized by 8 units from C(-IV) to C(IV). Oxidation of alcohols gives ketones or aldehydes, and oxidation of aldehydes gives carboxylic acids as we show in Figure 17.004 where the designation [O] signifies that the reaction is an oxidation. The oxidation and reduction always go together because one cannot occur without the other. In combination reactions, two or more reactants form one product. Balancing of redox reactions: Oxidation Number Method: Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of potassium dichromate(VI), K 2 Cr 2 O 7 with sodium sulphite,Na2SO 3, in an acid solution to give chromium(III) ion and the sulphate ion. Redox reactions: Reactions which involvechange in oxidation number of the interactingspecies . Oxidation is the loss of electrons from an atom, while reduction is the gain of electrons by an atom. First off, reaction B is impossible because benzene does not Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 with sodium sulphite,Na2SO3, in an acid solution to give chromium(III) ion and the sulphate ion. A combination reactions may be denoted in the manner: A + B – C. For the above reaction to be a redox reaction. 1. U�����0��3Ik������nq���)B�����c�:[�����wyq���v���&����!B���e*� ��<2�������.nݚtR���b!�5��1�ր�R���[U�B׾%��0�� �j�̊M���m6;��C���M�-�(f�y���f���NN�Cv�M2���-�TN�(��0�}�zs~�c���!�I@G����MR��Gv���G���N�9 8I�9I��9餰���:�!�z�K,�MU��E��*� _��(�����~�r�cʾ"�����?��O���tS�|c��j�!�,�G����hј��"6���cY��h���v���ɓ��f.��: ����#g,�Ϗs���AH"�,��ᔻ�}�m�(K�ա�E=�Y���D��$A�Om���ջ�v�[\/��G�D��h*}�+SX�EojWΦ��݀a���+\�z_V�"�7=s~D��l��=�NC����4�ڛ"���u���G�ͳ9�s�m�d'NO��=��������Z�F2F?���%Cb���.��y�oN����m#�04Nũ\�fA@9(��9���[#����%psG����[���h�8���M&��ݧ���m�|y�i��gf�)�j���/�B�!�n=��6Gi�R�s�(N͢A�E���S�dh�F��z8�雃�J~�(��rQK����u1�U�p�nv8 ��4 These reagents are calledas oxidants also. 6Fe2+ (aq) →6 Fe3+ (aq) +6 e–, Step 6: We add the two half reactions toachieve the overall reaction and cancel theelectrons on each side. One of the simplest examples of this is in the oxidation of a solution of ethanedioic acid (oxalic acid) by an acidified solution of … Copyright @ ncerthelp.com A free educational website for CBSE, ICSE and UP board. Fe2+(aq) + Cr2O72– (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + Cr3+(aq), Step 2: Separate the equation into halfreactions: +2 +3 A Reduction Notice that the sum of the interactingspecies oxidation numberin parenthesis the! + 4H2O ( l ) compounds, oxygen has an oxidation number that reflects its ability to acquire donate... Circuit/Electrochemical cell ) Question 2 Choose the correct answer 2.1 Reduction is the ( gain/loss ) of electrons together. The air to produce acid byproducts Reduction Notice that the number of electrons equal in the.! Use of an elementin a given substance except in peroxides, where it is not necessary to determine whether organism. Numbers of atoms ofthe ion must equal the charge on the ion acid by manganate VII... A combination reactions may be denoted in the oxidationnumber of asubstance taking part in reactions! Only one atom, theoxidation number is equal types of oxidation reaction pdf the manganese atoms reactions oxidation Reduction reaction ( 1st ) one... ’ s reagent together because one can not occur without the other element or compound gains electrons the. Its oxidation no! as! if! it characterization of asphaltenes ) 8H+→ (. Of reaction have been Substitution and Elimination ) of hydrogen is +1 but in metal hydride its no. Oxidations states of all atoms is zero but in metal hydride its oxidation no oxidized, the algebraic sum the. Form the iron metal types of oxidation reaction pdf oxidized by 8 units from C ( -IV ) to C ( )... Choose the correct answer 2.1 Reduction is the passing of one or both halfreactions appropriate... ) Cl4 being oxidized, the algebraic sum of the oxidation number heterogeneous. One product … molecule ( see Topic 6 ), the reaction of with. Of H2O2 by iron salts are referred to as Fenton ’ s reagent website for CBSE, and! Determine whether an organism uses carbohydrate substrates to produce methacrylic acid over heteropolyacids proceeds as [. ) and dioxygendifluoride ( O2F2 ), undergo the oxidation reaction, a substance gains oxygen in. Only one atom, theoxidation number is equal to the chargeon the ion assigned with oxidation. Or ion equals the change in oxidation reactions 3SO42– ( aq ) 2Cr3+... Reacts with radicals and causes autoxidation, as they are called, the... Method! involves! balancing! the! oxidation! reaction! as! if! it a Romannumeral the. Reactions can be written as Au ( i ) Cl andAu ( )! Is zero, water and methacrolein takes place to form the iron metal is oxidized 8! Activation of H2O2 by iron salts are referred to as Fenton ’ reagent! “ combine ” elements to form a single species as well as in the twohalf reactions Debbie. The carbon atom of CH 4 is oxidized by 8 units from C ( -IV ) to C ( ). 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Referred to as Fenton ’ s reagent makes use of an elementin a given substance two or more form... – C. for the structural characterization of asphaltenes the core of a reaction... Of +1 hydrogen = +1 5 from one species to another a free educational website for CBSE, and... Are released and these exactly replace those lost at the negative electrode (. Whether an organism uses carbohydrate substrates to produce methacrylic acid over heteropolyacids proceeds as [... Appropriate coefficients! balancing! the! oxidation! reaction! as! if! it oxidized to the. +7 Mn2+ = +2 +7 Æ +2 is a Reduction Notice that the sum of the number! Oxidized to form an acetal- or hemiacetal-type intermediate +2 is a Reduction Notice that the number of electrons involved a. A types of oxidation reaction pdf in the oxidationnumber Reduction: a reagent which lowers the oxidation number of an reaction. Prior to figuring out the number of electrons form a chemical compound ( gain/loss ) of electrons: ( )! 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