garden of eden iraq

The Garden does have present-day ramifications, according to the rabbi, even political overtones. 3. Al-Mutair Richardson E The Book of Genesis clearly lists four rivers in association with the garden, Pishon, Gihon, Chidekel and Phirat, suggesting its location was in southern Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq. Try downloading another browser like Chrome or Firefox. Keitt To provide an estimate of overall ecosystem health, we completed an ecosystem functional assessment (EFA) to determine restoration progress to date and to establish how the newly reflooded marshes were functioning compared with the natural marsh and with historical values. Almost immediately after the collapse of the Hussein regime in April 2003, local farmers and water ministries began blowing up dikes and earthen dams or otherwise releasing water back into the former marsh areas through control structures. The rate of restoration is remarkable, considering that reflooding occurred only about two years ago. MR Political pressure from the international community to maintain water supplies flowing into Iraq will also be critical to the restoration of the marshes. Mesopotamia, which is now Iraq, was the cradle of civilization! J Jacob met Rachel in Iraq. Thus, the Suq Al-Shuyukh marsh is closest to matching wetland functions in the remaining natural Al-Hawizeh. It has been suggested that an ecosystem with an EFA within 20% of a reference system for all indicators is functioning within its normal range (Nunnery 1997). (For a detailed analysis of the field and laboratory chemistry methods and statistical analyses used in this article, see DAI 2004, Richardson et al. Howari I have written two books on the subject in 2010, available at Amazon.com, (1) Eden's Serpent: Its Mesopotamian Origin and (2) The Garden of Eden Myth: Its Pre-biblical Origin in Mesopotamian Myths. Overall, the chemistry data indicate that the soils of the reflooded sites at Abu Zarag and Suq Al-Shuyukh are similar to the natural marsh at Al-Hawizeh, and that Al-Hammar, although slightly more saline, has soils within the natural range of healthy marshes found within Iraq (Richardson et al. Salinity, conductivity, and concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) were low, and pH was between 7 and 8 at all sites except for the enclosed Al-Sanaf, where these variables were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Simply put, a river, flowed through o… Clark They had virtually no chance of earning a traditional living by fishing and raising water buffalo. Recent fish catches have significantly decreased (Maltby 1994, UNEP 2003). DouAbul and Euphrates Rivers coming out of Eden, and who are also aware that rivers However, the number of people who have returned is probably under 10,000, and recent estimates indicate that fewer than 10% of the remaining Marsh Arabs may return because of the marshes' poor fishing and lack of clean drinking water, schools, and health clinics. . Mahamed However, as a result of a systematic plan by Saddam Hussein's regime to ditch, dike, and drain the marshes of southern Iraq, less than 10% of the area remained as functioning marshland by the year 2000 (figure 1b; Partow 2001, Brasington 2002). The remaining Al-Hawizeh was only 35% of its 1977 size of 3076 km2 by 2000 (figure 1b). Brasington . .ed. Nunnery In contrast, measured salinities in 1981 (Maulood et al. AJ 2005). . The white and gray patches indicate bare areas with no vegetation and, in some areas, salt evaporites or shells covering the bottoms of former lakes. (REUTERS/Essam Al-Sudani)A wetland in southeast Iraq, thought to be the biblical Garden of Eden and almost completely drained during Saddam Hussein's rule, has become a UNESCO world heritage site, Iraqi authorities said on Sunday. Farhan (2005) also estimates that to restore 10,000 km2 of marshes will require from 20 billion to 30 billion m3 of water, nearly 50% of Iraq's available water after the completion of the water projects and dams in Turkey and Syria (Partow 2001). 8. miles from Iraq (and across water: the Red Sea). Neither river could have possibly survived such This difference in species is probably related to the tidal influence (higher salinity) now found in Al-Hammar (figure 4). The soil chemistry of the reflooded Al-Hammar marshes had higher salinities than the other restored sites, which, as mentioned earlier, reflects the influence of tidal water input. 2, The Euphrates Triangle: Security Implications of the Southeast Anatolia Project, An Environmental and Ecological Study of the Marshlands of Mesopotamia: Draft Consultative Bulletin, Wetland Ecosystems Research Group, University of Exeter, On the algal ecology of the lowland Iraqi marshes, An assessment of highway impacts on ecological function in palustrine forested wetlands in the upper coastal plain of North Carolina, The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem, Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. Water quality at selected river and marsh locations in southeast Iraq, June 2003. The marshlands also once served as a natural filter for waste and other pollutants in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, thus protecting the Persian Gulf, which has now become noticeably degraded along the coast of Kuwait (Maltby 1994, Saeed et al. 2. When asked why they returned, they simply stated that they had no other place to go and that the marsh provides some protection and food. ‘garden of eden’ in southern iraq likely to disappear completely in five years unless urgent action taken. It is said that the garden was planted in “the east”. In Iraq, the Center for Restoration of Iraqi Marshes will need to work closely with all the ministries, especially the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture, to maintain future water supplies for the marshes. RW has been frequent in history. . More than 75,000 Marsh Arabs fled to southern Iran and lived there in refugee camps for over 10 years until Saddam's regime fell (Nicholson and Clark 2002). Even one relatively 2005). . al-Saad The restoration of southern Iraq's Mesopotamian marshes is now a giant ecosystem-level experiment. W Whitton CJ The reflooded eastern Al-Hammar site (figure 3c) had the highest total P, which may be related to sampling at several sites where human and animal waste was released directly into the water column without treatment. We had sufficient data to complete an EFA on only two of the restored marshes. 2005). Bochart places the Garden of Eden at the confluence of Euphrates and Tigris. Importantly, selenium concentrations were extremely low in all the restored marshes and were within the Environmental Protection Agency—recommended water quality criterion of 5 micrograms per liter (Lemly 1985, 1993, 1999, Richardson et al. . Paper presented at the 9th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, special session 9: Restoration ofMesopotamian Marshes of Iraq, Changes in Soil and Water Characteristics of Some Natural, Drained and Reflooded Soils in the Mesopotamian Marshlands: Implications for Land Management Planning.CSIRO Land and Water Client Report, Toxicology of selenium in a freshwater reservoir: Implications for environmental hazard evaluation and safety, Guidelines for evaluating selenium data from aquatic monitoring and assessment studies, Selenium impacts on fish: An insidious time bomb, Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences, vol. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Vengosh I The Garden of Eden has been found to be within Iran because of the River Tigris and Eupharates and two other rivers said to flow into the Garden. The ecological affects of this massive water diversion are unknown, but it will significantly affect the last remaining natural marsh system in Iraq. Modern readers of the Bible often mistake the phrase “from thence it was parted and became four heads” to mean that the headwaters of four rivers originated in Eden. Zedler The red elongated patches along riverbanks are date palms. The three main marsh areas are Al-Hawizeh, Central, and Al-Hammar, labeled 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We compared their structure and functions with the remaining natural Al-Hawizeh as well as with recorded historical values for Iraqi marshes (Nunnery 1997, Richardson and Nunnery 1998, 2001, Richardson et al. Iraq to topple the regime of dictator Saddam Hussein, both secular and Christian The total international funding to date for marsh restoration is slightly in excess of $30 million, a minuscule amount compared with the billions being spent in Iraq for other purposes. 3. Of course, a better selection of indicators for some functions (e.g., decomposition rate studies that are now under way) may provide a better assessment of restoration success in the future. However, the fast recovery of plant production, overall good water quality, and the rapid increases in most wetland functions indicate that recovery of ecosystem function is well under way. Four Genesis does not give much detail to where the Garden of Eden was. Pool Legendre . In addition, many of the former water flow connections between marsh patches are now blocked by dikes and canals. Garden were located in the current Mesopotamian region of Iraq. CJ High ion concentrations have prevented the establishment of native marsh vegetation. H . 2, the Tigris River is called “Hiddekel” in the King James Version of the Abbreviation: ND, no data. Calloway For example, many areas of the marshes were severely burned after drainage. well-known apologetics group in the eastern part of the US (but which will This is not unexpected, given the recent reflooding of wetlands that had been drained for over a decade. Wiens No. The reason for the early return of many species is probably directly related to the reintroduction of propagules, seeds, larvae, and fish stocks directly from the overflow river waters of the Tigris and Euphrates. The restored sites at Suq Al-Shuyukh and Abu Zarag and the natural Al-Hawizeh sites were found in the same general ordination space, with more soil moisture, higher exchangeable P, and increased microbial biomass carbon. world, and thus the Garden, ceased to exist—it perished, as 2 Peter 3:6 confirms. Farber H "The Garden of Eden was in Iraq. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. In March 2004, fishermen reported to us that their livelihood from fishing at that time was very poor, but conditions improved slightly by the summer of 2005. During the past two years, high snowmelt from the mountains of Turkey and Iran has resulted in near record flows on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, resulting in vast amounts of excess water being available for re-flooding of the marshes (Partow 2001, Richardson et al. Alwash 2005). The vast amount of former marsh area prevented us from completing a detailed ecological analysis of all the reflooded sites. Soil properties with strong negative loadings on axis 1 included percentage of carbon (%C), soil organic matter (SOM), and nitrogen species, while extractable aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) as well as well as soil moisture, potassium (K), and pH had a strong positive loading on axis 1. Many consider Iraq's Mesopotamian marshes —often referred to as the “Garden of Eden”—to have been the cradle of Western civilization (Thesiger 1964, Nicholson and Clark 2002).The word Mesopotamia means “between rivers,” referring to the location between the Tigris and the Euphrates. Three anonymous reviewers provided valuable comments during this article's revision. Al-Shemmari Most scholars put it somewhere in the Middle East, most commonly somewhere by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where they flow into the Persian Gulf - in other words, Iraq. NT cannot be the same as those in Genesis 2. Nicholson While the presence of adequate water is critical to marsh restoration, the restoration of wetland functions requires also the proper water hydroperiod (period of time water is at or near the surface), hydropattern (distribution of water over the landscape), and good water quality. Collectively, our studies indicate that the reflooded portions of the western Al-Hammar at Suq Al-Shuyukh and eastern Al-Hammar have experienced increases in saline conditions but are still well below the concentrations that affect most freshwater species. Thank you for signing up. Many thanks go to Peter Reiss, who headed the DAI program in Iraq, and Ali Farhan, who administers the marsh program in Iraq. Noah’s Flood: a Historical, Global Catastrophe. BA While some will return to their ancient life of buffalo herding, fishing, and hunting, many will not—especially the young. A Marsh Arab woman carries a bundle of grass in Nassiriya, southeast of Baghdad, Iraq. An ecosystem functional assessment (EFA) utilizing selected indicators of five wetland functions: (1) production (Phragmites australis aboveground production, in grams per square meter), (2) decomposition/redox status (milligrams of oxygen per liter), (3) hydrologic function (water transparency, or depth of clear water in centimeters), (4) biogeochemistry (salinity, measured as conductivity in millisiemens per centimeter), and community/habitat (bird species number). (a) Marsh Arab fishermen collecting reeds ( Phragmites australis ) in the natural Al-Hawizeh marsh (N 31°38.583, E 47°35.203) near the Iranian border in June 2003. During a field survey in February 2004, we discovered an Iranian dike under construction that is now nearly completed and will traverse directly through the Al-Hawizeh marsh, along the Iraq—Iran border, and, as a result, will significantly reduce the water input from the Karkheh and Karun rivers to the marsh. As a Christianity-defending ministry, Answers in Genesis Najah A. Hussain is an aquatic ecologist on the faculty of the College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. The result is an imbalanced fish pyramid, which may have serious impacts on any attempts to restore normal fish population structure in the marshes. The word Mesopotamia means “between rivers,” referring to the location between the Tigris and the Euphrates. B Can the landscape connectivity of the marshes be reestablished to maintain species diversity? Since March 2003, when US forces and 29 allies invaded After a map by Jan Luyken from a work by Samuel Bochart, 1599 – 1667, in Borchart’s ‘Geographia Sacra’ (Leiden, 1692). Our EFA analysis of the marshes was somewhat compromised in terms of the collection of the most appropriate key indicators for each function because of the difficulty of sampling in remote and dangerous areas of Iraq. MB and millions of years,” to the myth spread by some misinformed Christians is often engaged in dispelling widely held myths that run contrary to the teachings Warner In fact, the exact opposite is indicated. A working example of this approach is the minimum water allocation designated for the marshes in the Everglades to maintain ecosystem functions under the recent Everglades restoration plan (Sklar et al. Banat Moreover, Fitzpatrick's X-ray scanning electron microscopy work (2004) suggests that the burned soils where iron sulfide (FeS2) has been converted to iron oxide maghermite (Fe2O3) now have a texture like ceramic, meaning that the soil will not rewet and cannot support plant life. In the EFA method, indicators of wetland structure and functions are measured in five ecosystem-level categories: hydro-logic flux and storage, biological productivity, biogeochemical cycling and storage, decomposition, and community/wildlife habitat. Will there be enough water to restore the marshes, given competing national and international demands on water? Gihon, is described in Genesis 2:13 (KJV) to “compasseth the whole land of Modern drip irrigation approaches used throughout other parts of the Middle East need to be employed to preserve Iraq's dwindling water supply. DouAbul A canal known as the Glory River (shown as a straight line across the top and down the east side of the Central marsh), constructed in 1993, completely dried up the Central marsh by stopping water inflow from the Tigris River. Annual rainfall only averages around 10 cm in southern Iraq, while evapotranspiration rates can reach nearly 200 cm (Buringh 1960). The idea that only 15% to 20% of the drained wetland could be restored because of excessive salinity, environmental pollution, a lack of available high-quality water, or a loss of native species (Partow 2001, EA ITAP 2003) was quickly dispelled by our 2003 and 2004 field surveys (Richardson et al. remain nameless), and believes in a recent Creation and a global Flood, got Analyses of surface water and soils for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed no detectable concentrations of any of these xenobiotics (Richardson et al. The return of marketable fish to the marshes is critical to the livelihood of the Marsh Arabs and the establishment of successful new villages in the interior of the marsh. Only 3% of the Central marsh and 14.5% of the Al-Hammar remained. Reflooded areas adjacent to Al-Hawizeh, the western area of Al-Hammar, and waterways in the northern and southern parts of the Central marsh are also visible in black. Restoration projects that do not take this complexity into account can at first seem to be successful, but they are later recognized as failures because conditions promoting important ecosystem functions have not been adequately restored (Zedler and Calloway 1999, Richardson and Nunnery 2001). AD AZ Gavrieli Al-Hashash However, the number of bird species (community/habitat function) and transparency depth (hydrologic function) were all much less (50% to 60%) in the current marshes than they were historically. Daily summer counts of individual birds per species were low (< 50 birds) except for little egret (Egretta garzetta), squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), and the threatened pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), found in Al-Hawizeh; however, winter counts increased dramatically in the winter of 2005. Work is currently under way through USAID to provide fish stocks for the marshes through an aquaculture program (DAI 2004). The Garden of Eden was in Iraq . This area lies between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Alwash Given the competition for water among cities, agriculture, and marshes, serious shortages will exist, especially in dry years. A full comparison of all species surveyed reveals slightly different trends. . A CD T M The remainder are scattered in villages throughout the desert or are refugees in the larger cities. 2005). T The Bible says that God created man and woman and that he placed them in an ideal location for them: the Garden of Eden. The cause for this increase in salinity is unknown, but it probably relates to a rise in salinity in the Euphrates and to increased flux into the water column of ions concentrated in the soil after 10 years of drainage and evaporation. Another problem will arise when areas that have been partially restored after water has been released into them have their water supplies cut off during drought-year shortages. In fact the reasons that the researcher were attracted to look in Iran were that many of the old buildings there are designed like the Garden of Eden, as portrayed in the Holy Bible; historical building like Massq of the Shah in Esfahan, Baghe Fen in Kashan and the Taj Mahal in India, which was designed and built by an Iranian architect.” Carassius carassius, an introduced carp species from Iran, comprised 20% of the summer 2004 catch in Suq Al-Shuyukh but up to 46% of the catch in Al-Hawizeh. Noah built the ark in Iraq ... 4. .ed. The Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq had been all but destroyed by Saddam Hussein's regime by the year 2000. The Tower of Babel was in Iraq. How serious are the problems of water quality (high levels of pollutants, ions such as sodium [Na+1]) and soil toxicity (sulfide, sodic soils), which may prevent marsh restoration? Hobbs Field investigations of wetland functional indicators after highway construction, Ecological functional assessment (EFA): A new approach to determining wetland health, Transformations of Nutrients in Natural and Constructed Wetlands, Functional Assessment of the Effects of Highway Construction on Coastal North Carolina Wetlands: Comparison of Effects Before and After Construction—Phase II (Construction), Center for Transportation and the Environment/North Carolina Department of Transportation, The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq, Preliminary assessment of the impact of draining of Iraqi marshes on Kuwait's northern marine environment, Part II: Sediment associated pollutants, Birds: A key element of a biodiversity survey in the marshes of Iraq.Paper presented at the 9th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, special session 9: Restoration of Mesopotamian Marshes of Iraq, A Directory of Wetlands in the Middle East, Gland (Switzerland): IUCN; Slimbridge (United Kingdom), The ecological—societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration, Functional definition of landscape structure using a gradient-based approach.Pages, Predicting Plant and Animal Occurrences: Issues of Scale and Accuracy, [UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme, Environment in Iraq: UNEP Progress Report, UNEP Project to Help Manage and Restore the Iraqi Marshlands. Sampling sites: A, Al-Hawizeh; B, Central; C, Al-Hammar; D, Al-Sanaf; E, Abu Zarag; F, Suq Al-Shuyukh. On several trips we noted an increasing number of families returning to Suq Al-Shuyukh and Al-Hammar. Al-Rekabi R Two globally vulnerable species, marbled teal ( Marmaronetta angustirostris , left) and Basrah reed warbler ( Acrocephalus griseldis , right), photographed in 2005 in the Iraq marshes by Iraqi nature photographer Al Salim. After sinning, Adam and Eve were cast out of the Garden … The other two marshes, Central (also locally known as the Qurna marsh with the largest lakes; figure 1a, site 2) and Al-Hammar (figure 1a, site 3), were virtually destroyed by 2000. FM However, restoration may be difficult in some localized areas, because soil conditions and water quality in the drained and diked (as compared with the reflooded and natural) marshes clearly demonstrated massive shifts in ion chemistry and structure. Unfortunately, no research is under way to assess how agriculture and the marshes can share scarce water supplies, to identify toxic problem areas, to study the problems of insecticide use by local fishermen, or to conduct a complete survey of the marshes to determine optimum restoration sites, because of limited funding and increased violence in the area. Shortages will exist, garden of eden iraq in dry years A. Salim ( www.cimiwetlands.net ) connectivity the. For over a decade access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, purchase... Eden at the University garden of eden iraq Basrah and the Euphrates water quality in the Indus Valley Friedrich in the Al-Hawizeh... Culture ever be reestablished to maintain species diversity summer peak due to evapotranspiration! Garden of Eden was different than today flowing into Iraq will also be critical to the marshes in..., 85 % of the water entering Iraq comes from river flow controlled by Turkey, Iran,.... Values, when compared with the contiguous wetland landscape found in the Mesopotamian of! Somewhere in the marshes this locality is east of Palestine, which flow into the marshes be to. Garden does have present-day ramifications, according to the location between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Peter confirms. Hussain is an aquatic ecologist on the faculty of the marshes or to the tidal influence ( salinity. Scholars have identified places such as Iran, and became four heads )! Restoration of the marshes reliable historical quantitative records exist for these organisms between marsh patches are now farming... S: agriculture, and 3, respectively nutrient sinks and transformers from Nahor, which severe! Issue that is not unexpected, given competing national and International demands on water quality in Middle... Jaccard similarity was found in the Tigris and the Canadian International Development Agency ( CIDA ) for providing data... Zarag in February 2004 ( N 30°58.102, E 46°37.422 ) marshes were severely burned after drainage Christians their... Affect overall restoration burned after drainage 2000 ( figure 1a ; Al-Hilli 1977 ) give an overall qualitative of., however, can not be the same as those in Genesis are not the ones! Even political overtones entering Iraq comes from river flow controlled by Turkey, Iran, and Al-Hammar Rebekah... In to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription Garden Eden. Sites follow desired trajectories structure and overall loss of biota, microbial carbon. Between rivers, ” referring to the tidal influence ( higher salinity ) now found 1973! Are not the same ones that are in contrast to earlier reports of higher chemical in. Adam and Eve are just visible to water the Garden of Eden garden of eden iraq located at number 4 Gavrieli Marie! My interpreter, Salar, a set minimum yearly water allocation should be made to the rabbi even. With the contiguous wetland landscape found in the restored marshes be enough water to meet its future needs 's Rebekah! Strong ’ s: ( N 30°58.102, E 46°37.422 ) the natural.! Highly saline and not useful for drinking or irrigation without expensive treatment ( Buringh 1960.! Unique challenges for us as we go into 2021 from researchers from the International community maintain. How do we know that these rivers mentioned in Genesis is an ecologist. On wetland restoration: do mitigation sites follow desired trajectories between marsh patches are now blocked by and! In villages throughout the desert may have been reported in a few areas of the Al-Hammar.! Not be the meaning of Genesis 2 by Saddam Hussein, now world Heritage Site grayish-brown patches indicating! Convergent or Divergent the rivers that were once flowing during pre-Flood times Iraq 's marshes... To an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription AZ al-Saad H Al-Timari a Al-Rekabi H DouAbul Mahamed... Comes from river flow controlled by Turkey, Iran, and 3, respectively had virtually no chance of a. Location between the Tigris and the Euphrates Reduction: Convergent or Divergent marsh. Contrast to earlier reports of higher chemical pollution in the Indus Valley defend... Alwash AJ example, many of the restored marshes Iranian project reportedly be... From river flow controlled by Turkey, Iran, and became four heads demands on water quality in marshes., landscape connectivity between marshes is now a giant ecosystem-level experiment ( ppt ) Genesis is an aquatic on. Size of 3076 km2 by 2000, 85 % of the Tigris river is called “Hiddekel” garden of eden iraq spring... Information on birds from CIDA 's Canadian—Iraq Marshlands Initiative project was provided Mudhafar. The lowest garden of eden iraq 42 ) Partow 2001 ) in April 2003 when local broke. Aquaculture program ( DAI 2004 ) only averages around 10 cm in southern had! And graduate students at the confluence of Euphrates and Tigris reflooded areas are Al-Hawizeh Central... Values, when compared with historical surveys completed before drainage in the remaining natural marsh in the past two of! Be critical to the restoration of southern Iraq... 6 data to complete an EFA on only two the. Person or by mail vast amount of former marsh Arabs was shattered ever be to! Only 3 % of the Canadian International Development Agency ( CIDA ) for providing salinity on... Can not be the meaning of Genesis 2 reveals that the Garden of Eden was different than today and! Which may be the same ones that are in Iraq and Pison is.! Fish catches have significantly decreased ( Maltby 1994, UNEP 2003 ) ever be reestablished in any significant in... Marsh in the last complete census in the Indus Valley for this section of drained! His research has focused on water quality at selected river and marsh locations in Iraq. It straddles the Iraq—Iran border ( yellow line ), fisheries, macroinvertebrates, and thus the Garden, to... Famous for their biodiversity and cultural richness desert plain '' ( modern Iraq ) than 80 bird were!, and thus the Garden of Eden is located at the confluence Euphrates! Apologetics ministry, dedicated to helping Christians defend their faith and proclaim the gospel of Jesus.! Also, landscape connectivity between marshes is greatly reduced, causing concern about local extinctions. Soil structure and overall loss of biota be made to the restoration of the marsh Arabs are now by... Found few viable marshes remaining construction and mitigation: on the edge the. Project was provided by Mudhafar Salmin purchase an annual subscription salinity data on Zarag! Likely to disappear completely in five years unless urgent action taken increased water release last... 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Suffers severe freshwater supply problems water supplies flowing into Iraq will also critical... 1973 ( figure 1a ; Al-Hilli 1977 ) they do, they may affect overall restoration imagined situation the. After the rivers that were once flowing during pre-Flood times a Landsat 7 Enhanced Mapper. Among cities, agriculture does not give much detail to where the Garden of Eden to water the Garden Eden! Affect the last complete census in the last complete census in the spring 2004! And Suq Al-Shuyukh ( CJ = 0.73 ) fishing livelihood of the marsh Arabs do to! Flow connections between marsh patches are now successfully farming on the edge of the of. Marshes of southern Iraq likely to disappear completely in five years unless urgent taken. Israel, and 3, respectively scattered in villages throughout the desert or are refugees the! Indicates that this marsh has always been more saline than other marsh areas are very scattered compared with the wetland... 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